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-> Should know Inheritance in C++

In the end I explain how the compiler implements polymorphism and so knowledge of Assembly Language will be a great help in understanding Polymorphism. Nevertheless, I will still try to make the assembly explanation as simple as possible. So even if you do not know Assembly, try understanding it.


Polymorphism is in short the ability to call different functions by just using one type of function call. It is a lot useful since it can group classes and their functions together. Polymorphism is the most important part of Object-Oriented Programming. Some people feel that if they have an idea of what classes are they have stepped in the object-oriented world. But this is not true. Polymorphism is the core of object-oriented programming and if anybody stops here he's missing out the best part of Object Oriented Programming (OOP). All this may seem a lot hard to understand but read on... you'll understand better as you keep reading.

Let us now try to understand polymorphism with the help of an example. Suppose we want to draw a picture consisting of circles, squares, lines and triangles. So we can make a class Shape and create an instance of it like this:

Shape *s[100];

Now all the addresses of the objects of the other classes (line, circle, etc.) are stored in the Shape Array. And then to draw the Picture all we have to do is this:

    for(int i=0;i<=100;i++)

Now as the loop runs different draw functions of each class is called. This is great because:

Functions from different classes are executed through the same function call.
The Array s[] has been defined to contain shape pointers and not square or triangle pointers.

This can be done by using Virtual Functions.


The Literal Meaning of Virtual means to appear like something while in reality it is something else ie. when virtual functions are used, a program appears to call a function of one class but actually it may be calling a function from another class. In the previous example draw() is a virtual function since it calls different draw functions from different classes by using the same function call draw();

Now how do we know which version of draw() would be called during execution? Which draw() function would get used depends on the contents of s[i].But for this polymorphic approach to work we must satisfy the following conditions:

The Base class must contain a draw() function which is declared virtual.
All other classes (line, circle, etc.) should be derived from the base class.

Well, all this may be hard to understand in just one go so we'll start using programs that'll help us understand better. Here's the First One.

    #include class base //Base Class
    void func()
    cout<<"In base::func()\n";
    }; class d1:public base // Derived Class 1
    void func()
    cout<<"In d1::func()\n";
    }; class d2:public base // Derived Class 2
    void func()
    cout<<"In d2::func()\n";
    }; void main()
    d1 d;
    base *b=&d;
    d2 e;

Run this program and you would see that the output would be:

    In base::func()
    In base::func()

Shouldn't this statement give an error? (b=&e;) No. Since the compiler allows a pointer of a base class to accept addresses of derived class objects. This is known as UPCASTING. Here the Compiler looks at the type of pointer b and since it belongs to the base class it calls the base class function.

But now, let's make a slight modification in our program. Precede the declaration of func() in the base class with the keyword virtual so that it looks like this:

    virtual void func()
    cout<<"In base::func()\n";
Now Compile and Run the Program. Now the Output is:
    In d1::func()
    In d2::func()

This time the Compiler looks at the contents of the pointer instead of it's type. Hence since addresses of objects of d1 and d2 classes are stored in *b the respective func() is called. But this way how does the compiler know which function to compile when it doesn't know which object's address 'b' might contain? Which version does the compiler call?

Actually even the compiler does not know which function to call at compile-time. Hence it decides which function to call at run-time with the help of a table called VTABLE. Using this table the compiler finds what object is pointed by the pointer b and then calls the appropriate function. VTABLE is explained later.

The method by which the compiler decides which function to call at run-time is known as late-binding or dynamic-binding. It slows down the program but makes it a lot more flexible.


Now we realise that since the base class virtual function never gets called anyway we'd better keep it's body blank. But there's a better way to do this. We can change the virtual function func() in the base class to the following:

    virtual void func()=0;

The =0 is not an assignment operator here but it is just a way of telling the compiler that the function has no body. But there is another side of this. An object of a class which contains a pure virtual function cannot be created. It seems logical enough ie. If you have classes triangle, square, circle derived from shape class we wouldn't want to make an object of the shape class. Hence the shape class should be provided with a pure virtual function. If you even try to create an object of a class containing a pure virtual function the compiler would report an error even pointing out which pure virtual function prevents you from creating an object.


Using Virtual Functions is just one part of polymorphism and knowing how they work completes the other half. When the keyword 'virtual' is inserted in the declaration of the function the compiler inserts all mechanisms in the program to use Virtual Functions. Each Class has a VTABLE that stores the functions that it can access and each class contains a VPTR that can access the VTABLE. Look at this program and the table below it and you will understand the VTABLE and the VPTR.

    #include class item
    virtual void price()
    printf("In item::price()\n");
    virtual void type()
    printf("In item::type()\n");
    void display();
    void item::display(){printf("In item::display()\n");} class microwave:public item
    void price()
    } void type()
    }; class computer:public item
    void price()
    }; class radio:public item
    void type()
    }; void main()
    microwave m1;
    computer c1;
    radio r1; item *i=&m1;
    printf("\n"); i=&c1;
    printf("\n"); i=&r1;
    printf("\n"); microwave m2;

The Output of this Program would be:

    Microwave::type() Compuer::Price()
    In item::type()
    In item::display() In item::price()
    radio::type() Microwave::Price()
    In item::display()

Now here is how the VTABLE of each class Looks Like:

    i-------------> | item{VPTR}----> | &item::price() |
    | | &item::type() |
    | | |
    i-------------> |microwave m1,m2{VPTR}| µwave::price() |
    | | µwave::type() |
    | | |
    i-------------> | computer c1{VPTR}-> | &computer::price() |
    | | &item::type() |
    | | |
    i-------------->| radio r1{VPTR}----> | &item::price() |
    | | &radio::type() |

First the VPTR Pointer is initialised to it's proper VTABLE by the constructor which is automatically done by the compiler. When a Virtual Function is being called the VPTR looks up the VTABLE and calls the virtual function. If the function is not present in the VTABLE [like here display()] then the function of the base class is called. So everywhere where the display function is called item::display() is called every time. No matter how many objects of a class are created they all point to the same VTABLE of the class.


Normal Function calls are called by the Assembly instruction 'call' while virtual functions require complex instructions. This takes up code space as well as execution time.

Virtual Functions reduce the code's speed. Some languages like SmallTalk perform Late Binding every time a function is called and hence SmallTalk Programs aren't fast enough. But C++ is a Superset of C where Efficiency is important and hence C++ allows both static binding as well as late binding. The default convention used is static binding so that there is no loss in speed.

Don't stop using Virtual Functions in your classes just because they reduce execution speed. In fact, it makes it easier to manage and code and its advantages are more than its disadvantages. So wherever possible use Virtual Functions in your classes.


If a Virtual Function is called within a derived classes constructor or destructor then the derived function is always called.
If b is a base class pointer and d is a derived class pointer then b=d will copy only the base class contents and remove the derived class contents. This is known as Object Slicing and should be avoided.
For a Virtual Function to work the function must be present in that base class even though it is declared virtual in the derived class.
Virtual Destructors can also be used and they allow execution of the derived destructor first and then it calls itself.


Consider a situation when a 'base' class has two classes derived from it. For example derived1 and derived2. Suppose we create another class which derives itself from both the derived classes ie. derived3. Now suppose a member function of derived3 wants to access data or functions in a base class. Since derived1 and derived2 are derived from base each inherits a copy of base. This copy is referred to as a sub object. Now when derived3 refers to the data in the base class, which of the two copies should it access? The compiler notices this ambiguous situation and reports an error. To get rid of this we should make derived1 and derived2 as virtual base classes. This is shown in the following program.

    #include class base
    int data;

    }; class derived1 : virtual public base
    {}; class derived2 : virtual public base
    {}; class derived3 : public derived1,public derived2
    int getdata()
    return data;
    }; void main()
    derived3 d3;
    int val=d3.getdata();

Using the keyword virtual in the two classes derived1 and derived2 makes them share a single subobject of the base class hence eliminating all ambiguity since there is only one subobject for derived3 to access. Hence derived1 and derived2 are known as virtual base classes.



Lot of people know that the compiler uses a VTABLE to implement Virtual Functions but few get to see the actual code that the compiler generates. To save space I shall compile the same program that uses the item, microwave, computer and radio class and explain how the compiler implements Virtual Functions. I have used IDA Pro to disassemble this program. Here is the disassembled listing followed by the explanation. I have included line numbers so that I can just refer to the line numbers while explaining how the program works.

    ; THE FUNCTION main()
    _main proc near m2_VPTR = dword ptr -10h
    r1_VPTR = dword ptr -0Ch
    c1_VPTR = dword ptr -8
    m1_VPTR = dword ptr -4
    argc = dword ptr 8
    argv = dword ptr 0Ch
    envp = dword ptr 10h 1 push ebp
    2 mov ebp, esp
    3 add esp, 0FFFFFFF0h ; 16 bytes allocated on the stack
    4 push ebx ; Register Saved
    5 mov [ebp+m1_VPTR], offset item_VTABLE
    6 mov [ebp+m1_VPTR], offset microwve_VTABLE
    7 mov [ebp+c1_VPTR], offset item_VTABLE
    8 mov [ebp+c1_VPTR], offset computer_VTABLE
    9 mov [ebp+r1_VPTR], offset item_VTABLE
    10 mov [ebp+r1_VPTR], offset radio_VTABLE
    11 lea ebx, [ebp+m1_VPTR]
    12 push ebx ; this* pushed
    13 mov eax, [ebx]
    14 call dword ptr [eax] ; Calls microwve_price
    15 pop ecx ; 4 bytes freed used up by this*
    16 push ebx ; this* pushed
    17 mov edx, [ebx]
    18 call dword ptr [edx+4] ; Calls microwve_type
    19 pop ecx ; 4 bytes freed used up by this*
    20 push offset newline ; __va_args
    21 call _printf
    22 pop ecx ; 4 bytes cleared used up by argument
    23 lea ebx, [ebp+c1_VPTR]
    24 push ebx ; this* pushed
    25 mov eax, [ebx]
    26 call dword ptr [eax]
    27 pop ecx
    28 push ebx
    29 mov edx, [ebx]
    30 call dword ptr [edx+4]
    31 pop ecx
    32 push ebx
    33 call item_display
    34 pop ecx
    35 push offset newline1 ; __va_args
    36 call _printf
    37 pop ecx
    38 lea ebx, [ebp+r1_VPTR]
    39 push ebx
    40 mov eax, [ebx]
    41 call dword ptr [eax]
    42 pop ecx
    43 push ebx
    44 mov edx, [ebx]
    45 call dword ptr [edx+4]
    46 pop ecx
    47 push offset newline2 ; __va_args
    48 call _printf
    49 pop ecx
    50 mov [ebp+m2_VPTR], offset item_VTABLE
    51 mov [ebp+m2_VPTR], offset microwve_VTABLE
    52 lea ebx, [ebp+m2_VPTR]
    53 push ebx
    54 mov eax, [ebx]
    55 call dword ptr [eax]
    56 pop ecx
    57 push ebx
    58 mov edx, [ebx]
    59 call dword ptr [edx+4]
    60 pop ecx
    61 push ebx
    62 call item_display
    63 pop ecx
    64 push offset newline3 ; __va_args
    65 call _printf
    66 pop ecx
    67 pop ebx
    68 mov esp, ebp
    69 pop ebp
    70 retn
    _main endp item_price proc near ; Function item::price()
    1 push ebp
    2 mov ebp, esp
    3 push offset aInItemPrice ;__va_args
    4 call _printf
    5 pop ecx
    6 pop ebp
    7 retn
    item_price endp
    radio_type proc near ; Function radio::type()
    1 push ebp
    2 mov ebp, esp
    3 push offset aRadioType ; __va_args
    4 call _printf
    5 pop ecx
    6 pop ebp
    7 retn
    radio_type endp
    computer_price proc near ; Function computer::price()
    1 push ebp
    2 mov ebp, esp
    3 push offset aCompuerPrice ; __va_args
    4 call _printf
    5 pop ecx
    6 pop ebp
    7 retn
    computer_price endp
    item_type proc near ; Function item::type() 1 push ebp
    2 mov ebp, esp
    3 push offset aInItemType ; __va_args
    4 call _printf
    5 pop ecx
    6 pop ebp
    7 retn
    item_type endp
    microwve_price proc near ;Function microwave::price()
    1 push ebp
    2 mov ebp, esp
    3 push offset aMicrowavePrice ; __va_args
    4 call _printf
    5 pop ecx
    6 pop ebp
    7 retn
    microwve_price endp
    microwve_type proc near ;Function microwave::type()
    1 push ebp
    2 mov ebp, esp
    3 push offset aMicrowaveType ; __va_args
    4 call _printf
    5 pop ecx
    6 pop ebp
    7 retn
    microwve_type endp
    aInItemDisplay db 'In item::display()',0Ah,0
    newline db 0Ah,0
    newline1 db 0Ah,0
    newline2 db 0Ah,0
    newline3 db 0Ah,0 aInItemPrice db 'In item::price()',0Ah,0
    aRadioType db 'radio::type()',0Ah,0
    aCompuerPrice db 'Compuer::Price()',0Ah,0
    aInItemType db 'In item::type()',0Ah,0
    aMicrowavePrice db 'Microwave::Price()',0Ah,0
    aMicrowaveType db 'Microwave::type()',0Ah,0 ; THE VTABLES radio_VTABLE dd offset item_price
    dd offset radio_type computer_VTABLE dd offset computer_price
    dd offset item_type item_VTABLE dd offset item_price
    dd offset item_type microwve_VTABLE dd offset microwve_price
    dd offset microwve_type

For those who know nothing about Assembly but still dared to read till here should remember that in Assembly code anything after the semicolon ';' is a Remark. So between code I have inserted remarks so that it is easier to read.

Since we did not include the constructor in our code the compiler automatically inserts it between the main() section. Hence we can see in LINE 5. that m1_VPTR is first initialised to the VTABLE of item. Then in the next LINE m1_VPTR points to the address of the VTABLE of Microwave class. The same process continues till LINE 9.

Now in LINE 13. EAX contains the address pointed to by EBX ie. microwave_VTABLE. In LINE 14. it calls the function which is located at the address of eax ie. microwave::price(). This is the call of a virtual function. Look through the data Section and see how the VTABLES are set.

In LINE 33. there is a straight-forward call to item::display() and this is how a non-virtual function is called. Now compare the calling process of a non-virtual function to that of a virtual function. You will notice that the calling of a virtual function includes the following process:

Initialise the VPTR to that of the Base class VTABLE
Set the VPTR to the Derived class VTABLE
Load the address of the VTABLE in a Register
Call the Function located at the address pointed to by the VTABLE

But you require just one step to call a non-virtual function ie. the call instruction followed by the function name.

You should notice that the other microwave object also points to the same VTABLE but has a different VPTR. Each Class has it's own VTABLE and is shared among all VPTR's of the Same class.

In LINE 30. the instruction call dword ptr [edx+4] calls the function located at the (address+4 bytes) pointed by the EDX Register. This means that the 2nd Function in the VTABLE is called.

Notice that in the VTABLE of the radio class the address of item::price() is present. I hope you understand and appreciate the implementation of virtual functions by the compiler.

This is the end of our tutorial. I hope you use Virtual Functions in your programs since it is easier to code your programs using these functions.

Author Information:

Sanchit Karve


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ken - March 11, 2005 5:01 PM

your site is simple and straight forward thanks alot

ken - March 11, 2005 5:02 PM

your page on polymorphism is simple and straight forward thanks alot

Bindu - March 17, 2005 10:11 PM

thanks for the comprehensive description. - April 8, 2005 8:16 AM


rajat kanti das - May 20, 2005 1:04 AM

explanation of each topic is very excellent

yadie - May 23, 2005 3:22 AM

Very Very GOOD ... THANKS

balaji - June 8, 2005 12:54 AM

Easy to understand...

Vikas Chauhan - June 8, 2005 12:54 AM

This was the best explanation for virtual fuctions I have ever read.

Tan - June 8, 2005 2:29 AM

Need Some more explanation on the diamond problem with the help ov VTABLES and vptr's.

sonali - June 16, 2005 7:37 AM

great information about pure virtual functions.

Danish Raja - August 9, 2005 3:48 AM

Hey its great bcoz it helps me to make my assignment in few minutes..lolzz..thanx

Mallesh - September 11, 2005 6:31 AM

Excellent explanation to Virtual functions and clases

Sujatha Kasavaraju - September 21, 2005 1:46 PM

Nice work. Very helpful for students

joseph - October 6, 2005 5:01 AM

i'ts ok

a.harish kumar. - October 8, 2005 11:15 AM


Pratibha - October 20, 2005 11:07 AM


abhishek - October 25, 2005 8:23 PM

the concept of polymorphism was really fantastic and it was mentioned in a crystal clear manner..i thank the author for making this controversial topic an easier one.....

Omkar Parnandiwar - November 15, 2005 1:35 AM

really nice explanation!!!!
thanks a lot for it!
really good!

Nisha Patel - November 29, 2005 3:42 AM

Very good description of virtual functions and classes , helped me a lot to quickly refresh my concepts

Amar - December 1, 2005 8:33 AM

excellent description

rupesh - January 9, 2006 2:40 AM

thanks for the straight nd useful description u hv made in the polymorphism page.

rupesh - January 9, 2006 5:13 AM

thanks for the straight nd useful description u hv made in the polymorphism page.

Ahmed - January 13, 2006 11:11 AM

Thanx for ur excellent description


Gunjan - January 24, 2006 2:32 PM

Very good explanations of virtual functions!

Nidhi - February 3, 2006 1:56 AM

Explaination for virtual functions cant be better than this. Thanks for sharing this information .

Ganesh - February 6, 2006 6:00 AM

Good collection

Jeet Kulkarni - March 13, 2006 1:36 AM

this was a wonderful , clear in-depth explanation about how polymorphism is implemented by C++ using Vtables.

Prashanth - March 27, 2006 5:15 AM

Simple Explaination



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